What are the refrigerants? Why choose R134a as a vehicle refrigerant

At present, the commonly used refrigerants on the market are R22, 134a, R404A, R407C, R410A, in addition to these there are very many, the following with you in-depth understanding of the characteristics of these refrigerants, why only these kinds of refrigerants. This is due to the destruction of ozone, many refrigerant models have been slowly eliminated, mainly including R11, R12, R113, R114, R115, R500, R502, etc.; then the ozone layer destruction coefficient is only a few percent of R11 R22, R123, R141b, R142b, etc. also began to slowly ban the use.
At present, models with ozone layer destruction coefficient of 0: R134a,R125,R32,R407C,R410A, R152; The service life has not been announced yet. Let's learn about these refrigerants.

Refrigerant is the carrier of heat transfer in the refrigeration cycle. It absorbs and releases heat through state changes. Therefore, it is required that the refrigerant is easy to vaporize at room temperature, and it is easy to liquefy after pressurization. At the same time, it should absorb or release as much as possible when the state changes. Heat (large latent heat of gasification or liquefaction).

Refrigerant should have the following properties: non-flammable and explosive; non-toxic; non-corrosive; harmless to the environment.

The English name of the refrigerant is refrigerant, so the first letter R is often used to represent the refrigerant, followed by the name of the refrigerant, such as R12, R22, R134a, etc. In the past, the commonly used refrigerant was R12 (also known as flurion). This refrigerant has good performance in all aspects, but it has a fatal disadvantage, which is the destruction of the atmospheric environment. It can destroy the ozone layer in the atmosphere and make the sun's ultraviolet rays directly irradiate the earth, causing harm to plants and animals. At present, China has stopped producing automotive air conditioning systems using R12 as a refrigerant.
The replacement for R12 is currently R134a.

R134a has a boiling point of -26.9°C at atmospheric pressure and -10.6°C at a pressure of 98kPa. If it is released under normal temperature and pressure, R134a will immediately absorb heat and begin to boil and convert into gas. After pressurizing R134a, it is also easy to convert into liquid. The characteristics of R134a are shown in Figure 4-39. The upper part of the curve is gaseous and the lower part is liquid. If you want to change R134a from gaseous to liquid, you can lower the temperature or increase the pressure, and vice versa.

R-12 refrigerant

Alias R12, Freon 12, F-12, CFC-12, difluoromethane, commodity names such as Freon12, Chinese name difluoromethane, English name Dichlorodifluoromethane, molecular formula CCl2F2. Since R-12 belongs to CFC substances (ClassIOzone-depletingSubstances of the first restricted ODS substances)-damaging to the ozone layer and having greenhouse effect, in developed countries and some developing countries, it has stopped the initial installation of new air conditioning and refrigeration equipment or the re-addition of old equipment. China stopped the production of R12 refrigerant and the initial installation of new refrigeration and air conditioning equipment in 2007.

As the most widely used medium and low temperature refrigerant, the R-12 is R-12 mainly used in refrigeration equipment such as refrigerators, freezers, drinking fountains, automobile air conditioners, commercial air conditioners, cold storage, commercial refrigeration, freezing condensing units, etc. Difluorodichloromethane can also be used in aerosol propellants, physical foaming agents, medical disinfectants, insecticide launchers, etc. R-134a refrigerant alias R134a, HFC134a, HFC-134a, tetrafluoroethane, trade names are SUVA134a, Genetron134a, KLEA134a, etc., Chinese name tetrafluoroethane, English name 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, chemical name 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, molecular formula CH2FCF3. Because R-134a belongs to HFC substances (non-ODS substances Ozone-depletingSubstances)-it does not destroy the ozone layer at all. It is currently an environmentally friendly refrigerant recognized and recommended by most countries in the world. It is also the mainstream environmentally friendly refrigerant and is widely used in new refrigeration and air conditioning. The initial installation and re-addition during maintenance of equipment.

The main purpose of the R-134a R-134a as the most widely used medium and low temperature environmental protection refrigerant, due to HFC-134a good comprehensive performance, so that it has become a very effective and safe substitute for CFC-12, mainly used in the use of R-12(R12, Freon 12, F-12, CFC-12, Freon12, dichlorodifluoromethane) refrigerant in most areas, including: refrigerators, freezers, water dispensers, automotive air conditioners, central air conditioners, dehumidifiers, cold storage, commercial refrigeration, ice chillers, ice cream machines, frozen condensing units and other refrigeration equipment, but also can be used in aerosol propellants, medical aerosols, insecticidal propellants, polymer (plastic) physical foaming agents, and magnesium alloy protective gases. Although R134a refrigerant is the most common choice to replace Freon R12 in newly installed refrigeration equipment, R12 can only be added for after-sales maintenance of refrigeration equipment initially installed as R12 refrigerant if it is necessary to add or replace refrigerant, because R134a and R12 have different physicochemical properties, theoretical cycle performance and compressor oil, it is usually not possible to directly replace R12 with R134a (that is, exchange replacement is usually not possible). R-22 (difluoromonochloromethane) refrigerant physicochemical properties: R22(Freon22, difluoromonochloromethane Chlorodifuoromethane), molecular formula CHClF2, molecular weight 86.47. R-22 at room temperature is colorless, almost odorless gas, non-burning, non-corrosive, toxic minimal, pressurized can be liquefied to colorless transparent liquid, HCFC refrigerant.

Main uses: Freon -22, molecular formula: CHClF2, molecular weight: 86.47. The R-22 is widely used in household air conditioners, central air conditioners and other commercial refrigeration equipment; it can also be used as a raw material for PTFE resin and an intermediate for fire extinguishing agent 1121. Product packaging: steel bottle packaging, net weight 13.6kg/bottle, 22.7kg/bottle, 400kg/bottle, 1000kg/bottle, ISOTANK kg/bottle. Physical and chemical properties of ※ R-123 (dichlorotrifluoroethane) refrigerant: trifluorodichloroethane (2,2-dichloride -1,1,1-trifluoroethane), molecular formula CF3CHCl2, molecular weight 152.93, boiling point 27.85 ℃,CAS registration number: 306-83-2, ozone layer depletion (ODP)0.02, global warming potential (GWP)93, is an HCFC refrigerant replacing R-11(F11). Main purpose: R123 can replace F-11 and F-113 as cleaning agent, foaming agent and refrigerant (central air conditioning/centrifugal chiller).

R-124 (Chlorotetrafluoroethane) Refrigerant

Physical and chemical properties: monochlorotetrafluoroethane CHClFCF3,HCFC-124(R124), molecular weight 136.5, boiling point -10.95 ℃, critical temperature 122.25 ℃, critical pressure 3.613MPa, ozone destruction potential (ODP) 0.02, global warming potential (GWP,100yr) 0.10.

Main purpose: HCFC-124(R124) is mainly used as refrigerant and fire extinguishing agent. It is an important component of mixed working medium and can replace CFC-114. Product packaging: cylinder packaging, 13.6kg/bottle. Physical and chemical properties of ※ R-141b (dichlorofluoroethane) refrigerant: dichlorofluoroethane CH3CCl2F,HCFC-141b, molecular weight 116.95, boiling point 32.05 ℃, critical temperature 204.5 ℃, critical pressure 4.25MPa, ozone destruction potential (ODP) 0.11, global warming potential (GWP,100yr) 0.09. Main use: the product can replace CFC-11 as rigid polyurethane foam foaming agent, alternative CFC-113 as cleaning agent, also used as refrigerant. Product packaging: steel drum packaging, 20kg/barrel, 250kg/barrel.

R-142b (monochlorodifluoroethane) refrigerant

Physical and chemical properties: monochlorodifluoroethane CClF2CH3,HCFC-142b, boiling point -9.2 ℃, critical temperature 136.45 ℃, critical pressure 4.15MPa, colorless gas at room temperature, slightly aromatic, soluble in oil, insoluble in water.

Main uses: HCFC-142b(R-142b) is mainly used as a refrigeration system in high temperature environment, thermostatic control switch and intermediate of aviation propellant, and is also used as a chemical raw material.
Product packaging: cylinder packaging, 13.6kg/bottle, 400kg/bottle, 800kg/bottle.
R-402A refrigerant physicochemical properties: R-402A composition: R-22, R-290 and HFC-125, HCFC service mixed refrigerant. Meet the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) A1 safety level category (this is the highest level, harmless to human body); meet the United States

standards of environmental organizations EPA, SNAP and UL. Alkylbenzene AB(Alkybenzene) synthetic oil is recommended for refrigeration oil. Main purpose: alternative R-502 for commercial refrigeration equipment and some traffic refrigeration facilities, suitable for all R-502 can be normal operation of the environment.

R-402B refrigerant physicochemical properties: R-402B composition: R-22, R-290 and HFC-125, HCFC service mixed refrigerant. In line with the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) A1 safety level category (this is the highest level, harmless to human body); in line with the United States environmental protection organizations EPA, SNAP and UL standards. Alkylbenzene AB(Alkybenzene) synthetic oil is recommended for refrigeration oil. Main purpose: alternative R-502 for large commercial refrigeration equipment, such as ice machines. Suitable for all R-502 operating environments.

Physical and chemical properties of R-408A refrigerant: R408A refrigerant is a mixed working substance composed of R22,R125 and R143a. It is colorless gas at normal temperature, with 87.01 molecular weight, boiling point of -44.4 ℃, critical temperature of 83.8 ℃, critical pressure of 4.42MPa and ozone destruction potential (ODP) of 0.016.

Main purpose: R408A refrigerant is mainly used to replace R502.
Physical and chemical properties of R-409A refrigerant: R409A is a mixture of HCFC-22,HCFC-124 and HCFC-142b, and is a colorless gas at room temperature. The molecular weight is 97.4, the boiling point is -34.5 ℃, the critical temperature is 106.8 ℃, the critical pressure is 4.69MPa, and the ozone destruction potential (ODP) is 0.039.

Main use: R409A is a substitute for R12, mainly used in refrigeration systems.

R410A refrigerant is a new type of environmentally friendly refrigerant that does not destroy the ozone layer, and its working pressure is about 1.6 times that of ordinary R22 air conditioners. It has high cooling (heating) efficiency, improves air conditioning performance, and does not destroy the ozone layer. R410A new refrigerant is composed of two kinds of quasi azeotropic mixture R32 and R125 each 50%, mainly composed of hydrogen, fluorine and carbon elements (expressed as hfc), with stability, non-toxic, superior performance and so on. At the same time, because it does not contain chlorine, it will not react with ozone, that is, it will not destroy the ozone layer. In addition, the performance of the air conditioner using the new refrigerant will also be improved. R410A is internationally recognized as the most suitable refrigerant to replace R22, and has been popularized in Europe, America, Japan and other countries. Global trends and prospects for the use of R410A replacements in major international markets and international market entry dynamics.

R404A refrigerant refrigerant R404A, alias R404A, trade names are SUVAHP62, SUVA404A, Genetron404A, etc. Because R404A belongs to HFC-type non-azeotropic environmental protection refrigerant (completely free of ozone-destroying CFC, HCFC), it has been recognized and recommended by most countries in the world as a mainstream low-temperature environmental protection refrigerant, and is widely used in new refrigeration equipment. Re-add during initial installation and maintenance. As a medium and low temperature refrigerant widely used today, R404A is often used in cold storage, food refrigeration equipment, marine refrigeration equipment, industrial low-temperature refrigeration, commercial low-temperature refrigeration, transportation refrigeration equipment (refrigerated trucks, etc.), frozen condensing units, supermarket display cabinets and other refrigeration equipment. In addition, there are other low-temperature refrigerants R14 refrigerant, R13 refrigerant. R600a refrigerant refrigerant R600a is a new type of hydrocarbon refrigerant with excellent performance, which is taken from natural ingredients, does not damage the ozone layer, has no greenhouse effect, and is environmentally friendly. It is characterized by large latent heat of evaporation, strong cooling capacity; good flow performance, low conveying pressure, low power consumption, and slow load temperature recovery. Compatible with various compressor lubricants. (Note: When the content of R600a in the refrigeration system is insufficient, it will cause excessive pressure, abnormal machine sound, and shortened compressor life). It is a colorless gas at room temperature and a colorless transparent liquid under its own pressure. It is a substitute for R12.

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